Behavioral studies and consumer behavior articles claim that wine drinkers are generally have higher levels of education and live more sophisticated lifestyles, compared to people who drink other types of alcohol. Additionally, many wine drinkers are thought of to have higher incomes and better health, due to their consumption of healthy foods.
However, epidemiologic studies can not prove that wine consumers suffer less from cardiovascular diseases and mortality than people who consume other types of alcohol, after all adjustments for lifestyles have been accounted for.
Previous long-term studies on older Americans concluded that it was the associated lifestyle, habits and environmental factors that exponentially explained their better health. However, some people were concerned that the study's approach was flawed, claiming that the data presented on paper were inadequate to support the study's conclusion.
While the study may have been flawed due to its research on only a single estimate of alcohol intake and large adjustments for what the authors deemed as low-wine and high-wine consumers. Regardless, the study did confirm lower mortality rates for wine consumers than non-alcohol consumers.
To support this find, experimental studies show that some polyphenols and other constituents present within wine and other alcoholic beverages have independent properties that can protect against most cardiovascular risk factors.
Regardless, whether such advantages are found among moderate wine or beer drinkers is hard to determine. Epidemiologic studies have a hard time proving one or the other because comparisons among wine, beer and spirit drinks are not being made. Instead, what is being compared are humans who consume these beverages, and of course, it is hard to make conclusions based off human research, due to complex differences between each individual.